الأحد، 15 مارس، 2009




كيفية حساب الجرعة

Susp.

Dose /ml= Dose/mg x 5 / conc.

# مثال طفل جرعته 100 ملجم اموكسيسيللين

Dose =100x 5 / 125= 4cm

4سم بالفم في كل جرعة

Injection

Dose = dose mg x solvent ml / conc.

# مثال طفل جرعته 300 مجم اموكسيل والحقنة سوف تحل على 2 سم

Dose = 300 x 2/ 500 = 1.2 cm

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كيفية حساب الوزن بالنسبة للعمر

قبل سن سنة الوزن = العمر بالشهر + 9 / 2

من سنة حتى 7سنين الوزن = العمر بالسنين x 2 + 8

بعد 7 سنين الوزن = 7x العمر - 5 / 2

معلقة الشاى = 3.5 سم

معلقة الدواء = 5 سم

معلقة الأكل = 7.5 سم

معلقة الشوربة = 15 سم

الفنجان = 30 سم

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Antibiotics

(1) ampicillin:

Epicocillicn , Ampicillin

susp. : ( 125, 250 )

vial : (500 , 1000 ) except Epicocillin 250 vial

Dose = 50 -100 mg / kg / day every 8 hours

Ex. :

1- 6kgm baby , mild 6x50 =300 mg

300/ 3 = 100 mg / dose

so dose = 100 x 5 / 125 =4cm / dose

يعطى الطفل 4 سم بالفم كل 8 ساعات

2 - 15 kgm child , so sever dis. 15x100= 1500 / 3=500

dose =500x5 / 250 = 10 cm per dose

(2) amoxicillin

Amoxil , Emox , Hiconcil , Biomox , Ibiamox

All forms 60 cm= 12 teaspoonfull

Dose : 50 – 100 mg / kg/ day every 8 hrs.

Ex.:

1 - baby 3kgm sever 3 x 100= 300 mg /3= 100 mg per dose

Amoxil 125 mg/5ml , 4cm oral every 8 hrs

Or , Hiconcil oral drops , one dropper every 8 hrs

ANY ANTIBIOTIC DROPS 1 CM =100 MG = ONE DROPPER

2 - baby 3 kgm mild 3x50 = 150 mg / 3 =50 mg / dose

Hiconcil drops , half dropper every 8 hrs.

Or , Hiconcil 125 susp. 2cm every 8 hrs

DON'T GIVE I.M. INJECTION BUT IF YOU NEED INGECTION ADMITT CHILD FOR I.V. INJECTION

Give injection every 8 hrs or every 12 hrs.

3 - child 10 kgm 10x100=1000 mg /2 =500 mg every 12 hrs.

E-mox 500 vial every 12 hrs

4 - child 6kgm sever 6x100=600 mg /2= 300mg every 12hrs

300x3/500=1.8cm

E-mox (500mg/ 3cm) 1.8 cm every 12 hrs

ALL FORMS OF ANTIBIOTICS INJECTION HAVE STABILITY 12- 24 hrs EXCEPT AMPICILLIN AND CRYSALLINE PENICILLIN

NOTE : Amoxicilline dose :

Mild : 20 mg/kg/dose

Sever : 30 mg/kg/dose

(3) Cefalosporines

A-1st Generation Cefalosporines

Mainly G.+ve

a- Cefradine 50 -100 mg /kg/day twice daily

velosef vial (0.5 gm – 1.0 gm )

drops

syp.(125 – 250 )

Cefradine syp. (125 – 250 )

b- cephalexine 50 – 100 mg /kg/day every 8 hrs

cephlex –ceporex – ospexin

( 125 -250 )

c- cephadroxil 50 -100 mg /kg/day twice daily

duricef – biodroxil – ibidroxil

( 125 – 250 )

Syp 5oo mg

Drops

vial : cefatroxil vial ( 0.5 – 1.0 gm )

Indication : URTI – skin ( Impetigo – Cellulitis )

B – 2nd Generation Cephal.

a- cepharoxim

Zinnat

syp 125 mg 20 mg/kg/day every 12 hrs

Vial (0.25 – 0.75 gm ) 50 -100 mg/kg/day 3 times I.V.

30 mg/kg/day

b- cefaclor 30 – 40 mg/kg/day every 8 hrs

bacticlor –ceclor – cloracef

( 125 -250 )

Ex. 15 kgm child 15 x 30 = 450 /3 =150 mg

Bacticlor 125 mg 6cm PO / 8 hrs

#ALL 2ND GENERATION DOSE : 10 mg/kg/dose

BUT Zinnat every 12 hrs

Bacticlor evey 8 hrs

Ex.

*Child 20 kgm 20 x 10 = 200

Bacticlor 250 4cm /8hrs PO

Zinnat 125 8cm /12hrs PO

*15 kgm child 15 x 10 = 150 mg

bacticlor 250 3cm /8hrs PO

*12 kgm child 12 x 10 =120 mg

Zinnat 125 5cm /12hrs PO

C – 3rd Generation Cephal.

50 -100 mg/kg/day

Indication :

Otitis Media – Sinusitis – Chest Infection – G.E.(shigella –E-coli)

75% G-ve 25%G+ve

N.B. cephaclor acts on atypical pneumonia as erythromycin

a- cefotaxim

cefotax T3A-ceforan – claforan

(500-1000 mg) I.V. every 8 hrs & I.M. every 12 hrs

b- cefopurazone limited in shigella and salmonella

cefopid – cefozone – cefopurazone

(500-1000 mg)

c- ceftazidim

fortum vial (500-100mg )

effective in pseudomonas infection

d- ceftriaxone every 24 hrs I.V. or I.M.

I.M. MUST BE DISSOLVED IN LIDOCAIN

Bactrial trachiitis – typhoid –chest &skin infection -cholecystitis –meningitis

Rocephine 1gm

Cefotrix 0.25 gm- 0.5 gm – 1.0 gm

Ceftriaxon 0.5 gm -1.0 gm

Cefaxon 0.25 gm -0.5 gm -1.0gm

Compinations

Amoxicillin + Clavulinic acid

· Don't give orally > 9 mo.

· Dose 60-90 mg/kg/day every 8 hrs

Susp. 156 – 312 E-moxclave –curam – magnabiotic

230 – 460 Augmentin – Hibiotic –Deltaclve – megamox

Injecion 600 – 1200 Augmentin

· SO DOSE IS wt. x 20 or 30

*Ex.

a - Child 11 kgm 11 x 20 = 220 mg per dose

Augmentin 230 5cm PO every 8 hrs

b- child 15 kgm 15 x 20 = 300 mg per dose

E-moxclave 312 5cm PO every 8hrs

c - Child 18 kgm 18 x 20 = 360 mg per dose

Hibiotic 460 4cm PO every 8 hrs

d - 23 kgm 23 x 20 = 460 mg per dose

Hibiotic 460 5cm PO every 8 hrs

Ampicillin + Sulbactam

· susp. 50 mg/kg/day Or 1 cm /kg /day

· All 250 mg /5ml

· Every 12 hrs or 8 hrs

· Unasyn –Unictam – Ampictam

· Ex.

10 kgm 10 x 50 = 500 mg /day

Unictam 250 susp. 5cm every 12 hrs

· Ingection 150 mg/kg/day

· 375 – 750 – 1500 mg Unasyn –Unictam – Ampictam – salbin -solbin

· Ex.

a – 10 kgm 10 x 150 = 1500 mg /day

Unasyn 750 mg every 12 hrs

b – 20 mg 20 x 150 = 3000 mg /day

Unictam 150 mg vial every 12hrs

MACROLIDS

3 generation Erythromycin 30 – 50 mg / kg /day every 8 hrs

Clarithromycin15 mg / kg /day every 12 hrs

Azithromycin 10 mg / kg /day every 24 hrs

Erythromycin

erythromycin – erythrocin – erythrin 200 mg

Ex. 6kgm child 6 x 50 = 300 mg per day

Erythrin 2.5 cm oral per 8hrs

Clarithromycin

Clacid 125 – 250 mg

Clarimix 125 mg

Ex. 15 kgm 15 x 15 = 200

Claid 125 susp 5cm every 12 hrs

Azithromycin 200 mg / 5ml

Zithrokan –azalid

Dose = wt. / 4

Zisrocin Dose = wt./ 2

Ex. 10 kgm 10 / 4= 2.5 cm per dose

Azalid susp. 2.5 cm PO once daily

Or zisrocin susp. 5cm PO once daily

Indications:

URTI – low sensitivity – Atypical pneumonia

AMINOGLYCOSIDES

Mainly G-ve

Gentamycin 3- 5 mg /kg/day

Garamycin Amp. (20 – 40 – 80 mg) ( 2 – 1 – 2 cm )

Epigent vial (20 – 80 mg) ( 0.5 – 2 cm )

Gentamycin 80 mg Amp / 2cm يوجد فى المستشفيات فقط

Topramycin very safe " napcin" 3-5 mg /kg/day

Amp. (20 -80mg ) /2cm

Amikacin vial (100 – 250 – 500 ) 15 mg /kg/day

Indication :

A – As compination with G+ve in pneumonia

B – UTI "VERY GOOD" not glomerulonephritis as single daily dose 7-10 d.

kanamycin very nephrotoxic

streptomycin

TRIMETHOPRIM (chemotherapy )

Dose 1 cm/kg/day

Sutrim – septazol – septrin

Indications : UTI – ( E-coli – salmonella – shigella ) drug of choise

ملاحظات مهمة

(!) chloramphenicol C.I. <>

tetracyclines C.I. <9years>

Oral Augmentine C.I. <>

Quinolones C.I.<>

(2) Drug choise

URTI (macrolid – Augmentin – 1st generation cephal. – 2nd generation

Chest & LRTI( Augmentin – 2nd generation cephal.)

UTI a- septrin

b- nitrofurantoin 7 -10 mg /kg/day (uvamin retard 100 caps.)

c – ( severe ) ceftriaxone – Aminoglygosides

GIT : 1- septrin ( toxic not shoked ) if shoked give ceftriaxone

2- cefotaxim ( cefotax)

· response of antibiotics appear after 48 hrs

· المضاد الحيوى الذى تبدأ به يجب أن تكمل به

· suppurative tonsillitis resistant : procain penecilline

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> 4years twice daily بعد عمل اختبار الحساسية

· crystalline penecilline has no stability

· recurrent tonsillitis PLZ do culture

· antidiarrheal drugs is only indicated in antibiotic diarrhea

give kapect or ياكل ويشرب ميه رز مصرى